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Debunking 9/11 Mini-nuke Hypotheses

Look at the Raw Data, and don't let others do your thinking for you!

Here are the scientific studies themselves

The USGS WTC Dust Study

Here is the published results of the USGS WTC Dust Study:

Evaluation of World Trade Center dusts and girder coatings using a simulated precipitation leaching procedure:

Particle Atlas of World Trade Center Dust

USGS Environmental Studies of the World Trade Center Area after September 11, 2001

Some proponents of the Mini-nuke hypothesis have claimed that this study shows unually high concentrations of Uranium, Thorium, Tritium, and other signs of nuclear fission products... But if you read the captions in the paper carefully, it says these concentrations are normal compared to the mean concentrations of the same elements in soils from the eastern United States (other studies). It also says:

"The mean concentrations of some heavy metals in the WTC dust samples (such as antimony , molybdenum, zinc, copper , lead, chromium, manganese, nickel, and barium) are relatively high compared to their mean concentrations in natural soils from the eastern United States."

The plot (above) compares the concentration ranges and mean concentrations of chemical elements in the WTC dusts (this study) to the mean concentrations of the same elements in soils from the eastern United States (other studies).

R J Lee Group WTC Dust Signature Study

Here is a copy of the R J Lee Group Dust study:

Limited Metallurgical Examination of WTC 7 Steel

Appendix C of the FEMA Report contains a metallurgical examination of Steel from WTC 7:

Seismic Studies:

The following paper by Dr. Andre Rousseau is titled "Were Explosives the Source of the Seismic Signals Emitted from New York on September 11, 2001?"

The conclusion states: "Near the times of the planes' impacts into the Twin Towers and during their collapses, as well as during the collapse of WTC7, seismic waves were generated. To the degree that (1) seismic waves are created only by brief impulses and (2) low frequencies are associated with energy of a magnitude that is comparable to a seismic event, the waves recorded at Palisades and analyzed by LDEO undeniably have an explosive origin. Even if the planes' impacts and the fall of the debris from the Towers onto the ground could have generated seismic waves, their magnitude would have been insufficient to be recorded 34 km away and should have been very similar in the two cases to one another. As we have shown, they were not."

Tritium Studies

Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen in which the nucleus contains one proton and two neutrons. Nuclear fusion produces large amounts of tritium.

Although tritium is formed naturally through the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, it does not accumulate because of its short half-life of 12.3 years. Because its decay products cause phosphors to glow, tritium is used in self-illuminating devices found in watches, exit signs, and gun sights.

Proponents of the WTC nuclear weapons theory have cited the following passage, which reports the detection of tritiated water around the WTC, as evidence for their theory.

Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at the World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.1640.074nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.530.17 and 2.830.15 nCi/L, respectively.

The quantities reported are extremely small, and, as the same report states, their likely source was tritium radioluminescent devices in the World Trade Center.


Uranium is a naturally-occurring element (atomic number 92) used to fuel nuclear reactors and manufacture plutonium (atomic number 94) for nuclear weapons. Uranium has several different isotopes, which are radioactive to different extents.

Proponents of the WTC nuclear weapons hypothesis have cited the following passage from a scientific study of dust and smoke emanating from Ground Zero as evidence for their theory.

Radionuclides. We analyzed the gamma spectrum of the samples using an EG&G/Ortec high-purity Ge detector (50% relative efficiency) gamma counter (EG&G/Ortec Instruments, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN). We analyzed approximately 50 peaks based on statistical significance (counting/lack of interferences). These included thorium, uranium, actinium series, and primordial radionuclides. Liquid scintillation analyses were conducted for emissions on the total dust and smoke samples using a Packard Tri-Carb Model 2770 TR/SL (Packard Instrument, Meriden, CT). The MDA [mimimum detectable activity] for alpha radioactivity was 0.30 DPM (0.14 pCi) based on a NIST-traceable 226Ra standard (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD). When placed in the liquid scintillation fluid, the WTC samples are somewhat darker than the backgrounds and calibration standard, which may cause slight underreporting of the beta activity due to quenching and standard-to-sample efficiency bias. 2

[NOTE: MDA means minimum detectable activity, and DPM means decays per minute.] The passage indicates that the radioactivity of the WTC samples was only slightly above background levels, which is not surprising, given that small quantities of radionuclides are used in applications likely present in the Towers.

Steven Jones tested a solidified metal sample for radioactivity and found no radioactivity above background levels.

Again, I'd like to remind people to take a look at the hard forensic scientific evidence, before you listen to any popular personality on the internet try to convince you what to believe. You should draw your conclusions based on hard evidence, not the beliefs or opinions of others. I understand, not everyone has the scientific background and technical training to understand all the hard data. In that case, you just have to look around at what other people are saying and decide what you want to believe.

I only wish that more thorough scientific and forensic studies had been performed to learn more and probe deeper...

Proponents and Critics of the Theory

The idea that nuclear devices, and in particular, 'mini-nukes', were used to destroy the Twin Towers has been promoted in a number of quarters, such as in the DVD 9/11 Eyewitness.

Promoters of the mini-nuke idea have suggested that such weapons were needed to produce the thorough pulverization of concrete observed at Ground Zero, and other aspects of the destruction.

Dr. Steven E. Jones has refuted this idea repeatedly, including in the following short essay.

e x c e r p t title: Testing the Hypothesis that Mini-Nukes Were Used on the WTC Towers author: Steven E. Jones

  • Empirical Facts: All nuclear weapons (especially FUSION/Hydrogen bombs) release copious high-energy neutrons which will activate steel and other materials. This is called neutron activation and cannot be avoided, and much of the induced radioactivity remains for decades.
  • I have studied fusion for decades, and have made frequent measurements of neutrons (as well as charged particles).
  • Several months ago, I tested WTC dust samples and a solidified metal sample for radioactivity using a Geiger counter: I found ZERO RADIOACTIVITY. This experimental evidence goes strongly against the mini-nukes hypothesis since neutron activation levels were zero.
  • I also tested some sand gathered from a nuclear-bomb test site decades ago for comparison ? and the Geiger counter showed hundreds of counts per minute. This also shows the long life of the radioactive residues due to nuclear bombs ? the sand still yields high Geiger-counter readings decades after the nuclear bomb blast.
  • Note that concrete pulverization is often achieved in controlled demolitions with chemical explosives, e.g., the Seattle Kingdome demolition.
  • Mini-nukes are not needed for pulverization nor for ?top-down? demolition as observed for the WTC Towers.

In September, 2006, James Fetzer posted a series of articles on suggesting that 'mini-nukes' were used to destroy the Twin Towers. Fetzer pitted Dr. Steven Jones' one article debunking the idea against six, implying that the idea had merit.

Promoters of the mini-nukes idea have also supported their claim with news stories of nuclear contamination in landfills near New York City, ignoring the fact that the stories were about radium contamination from industrial equipment.

A simple disproof of the idea that nuclear weapons were used to destroy the Towers is that all such weapons generate intense electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum. Onlookers would have been blinded had any such devices been used.

Despite the scientific refutation of the mini-nukes idea by Jones and others using simple scientific arguments, James Fetzer continued to promote the idea on the website -- a site that purports to represent the group of scholars that includes co-founder Steven Jones.

Another debunking of the nuclear attack "theory" is provided by a Finnish author:

s u m m a r y
title: WTC hydrogen bomb theory refuted
This page provides a 9-point refutation of the ideal [sic] that nuclear devices were used to destroy the WTC buildings. It includes an e-mail exchange between the critique's author and Hannu Yli-Karjanmaa, who has posted the nukes "theory" among a collection of articles attributed to an anonymous Finnish "military expert" it.

site: page:

How this disinformation functions

The idea that a mini-nuke inside of a suitcase would be easier for the perpetrators to sneak past WTC Security Systems, is meant to DISTRACT you from looking deeper into the actual WTC Security Systems and WHO ran them in the years leading up to 9/11, as well as WTC Tenants who worked inside these buildings everyday and are suspected of Further Crimes and Cover-ups inside the towers that day!

"A honey pot, in intelligence jargon, is a tempting source of information or 'dangle' that is set out to lure intended victims into a trap. Ultimately the honey pot is violently and maliciously discredited so as to destroy the credibility of anything stuck to it by association." -Michael Ruppert, "Crossing the Rubicon," p. 184

This is smoke and mirrors disinfo is designed primarily to take your attention off of the HARD EVIDENCE of nanothermite use at the WTC, and how it leads directly to people like L. Paul Bremer and organizations like SAIC and the Komatsu-Dresser / Battelle nanothermite demolition patents. Please watch my video on that detailed and often covered-up info here:

No serious 9/11 researchers actually believe this theory any more, and if they do they are probably government shills.

WTC Security Firms included:


Despite Kroll's leading role in providing the security plan for the WTC, neither the 9/11 Commission nor the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mentioned Kroll in their respective reports. But there are a number of reasons why Kroll should have been included in the investigation.

Kroll calls itself "the world's leading risk consulting company," [49]and was founded by Jules B. Kroll in 1972. Mr. Kroll had been admitted to the New York Bar in 1967, and had spent several years as an assistant District Attorney for New York County. [50]

Jules Kroll is a graduate of Cornell University, where he was a member of the secret society Quill and Dagger, as were former Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, Marsh and McLennan's Stephen Friedman, and National Security Advisors Sandy Berger and Stephen Hadley. [51] Friedman figured prominently in the evaluation of WTC tenants, due to his role at Marsh & McLennan and his later role as George W. Bush's top economic advisor. Friedman was also a member of the Brookings Institution, the Bilderberg group, the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, and the board at In-Q-Tel. Berger was noted for stealing documents during the 9/11 investigation and for preventing Richard Clarke's response to Al Qaeda, with help from Hadley.

Kroll Inc. has been hired by some of the most powerful governments and organizations in the world. Beyond simply assessing risk, Kroll has operated as a private intelligence agency, and has been called "The CIA of Wall Street". In this role, Kroll traced and recovered the assets of Ferdinand Marcos, Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier, and Saddam Hussein (for Kuwait). Kroll also worked for the Russian government to recover funds, and for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) during the Savings and Loan scandal.

At times, Kroll worked for corporations that wanted to find fraud or secrets within a given organization. In some cases, when corporations were threatened with hostile takeover, Kroll helped out by finding embarrassing secrets about the takeover company's executives, thereby preventing the takeover. Former CIA spies, FBI agents, and prosecutors were hired by the firm, and made as much as twice the salaries they made in the public sector while investigating corporate and personal misdeeds. One of Kroll's more important cases involved the investigation of derivatives fraud at Daiwa Securities.

49. Kroll Inc website,

50. Windfalls of War: Kroll Inc. The Center for Public Integrity,

Securacom Stratesec

Securacom got the $8.3 million World Trade Center security contract in October 1996 and received about $9.2 million from the WTC job from 1996 (a quarter of its revenues that year) to 1998. But in 1998, the company was "excused from the project" because it could not fulfill the work, according to former manager Al Weinstein, and the electronic security work at the WTC was taken over by EJ Electric, a larger contractor.

According to its present CEO, Barry McDaniel, the company had an ongoing contract to handle security at the World Trade Center "up to the day the buildings fell down."...

Barry McDaniel, CEO of the company since January 2002, declines on security grounds to give specific details about work the company did at the World Trade Center. According to McDaniel, the contract was ongoing (a "completion contract"), and "not quite completed when the Center went down." The company designed a system, but &endash; as he points out -- obviously that "didn't have anything to do with planes flying into buildings."...

Kevin Ryan's "Demolition Access to the WTC":

Demolition Access To The WTC Towers:


August 9, 2009
See also,
in this series:
Introduction by Don Paul
Part One - Tenants
Part Two - Security
Part Three - Convergence
Part Four - Cleanup